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The History and Categories of Chemical Fiber

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The History and Categories of Chemical Fiber

Post  vaseline on Wed Jun 22, 2011 2:16 am

There are many kinds of raw materials to be used in textile production. Among these various raw materials, the history of cotton, flax, silk and wool is longest. However, these raw materials are all natural kinds with very limited amount. For example, the output of cotton per hectare can only reach about 50 kilograms; the output of wool must depend on the development situation of animal husbandry. Therefore, scientists have begun to study some other raw materials with cheaper price and richer source to produce cloth. These new raw materials are chemical fibers.

Chemical fibers are the fibers with textile property obtained through such procedures as preparing raw materials for spinning, spinning and post processing with natural or artificially synthesized high molecular compounds as raw materials.

Chemical fibers can be grouped into two categories: regenerated fibers and synthetic fibers. Regenerated fibers are chemical fibers such as viscose acetal fibers and acetate cellulose fibers made of natural high molecular compounds like celluloses. Viscose acetal fibers are the earliest products of artificial textile fibers. Various patterns of cloth we often see like beautiful spun rayon cloth, soft rayon fabric and colorful artificial fur are all made of viscose acetal fibers. Viscose acetal fibers have many common advantages with cotton. For example, they both have excellent hygroscopicity, so people will never feel hot and stuffy. Synthetic fibers are made of artificially synthesized high molecular compounds.

Actually, chemical fibers can be divided differently according to different classification standards. Generally speaking, according to the sources of high polymer, chemical fibers can be divided into regenerated fiber and synthetic fiber; according to the internal components, there are polyester fiber, polyamide fiber, polyacrylonitrile fiber, polypropylene fiber, polyvinyl alcohol fiber and polyvinyl chloride fiber; according to morphostructures, there are filament fiber, short fiber, composite fiber superfine fiber and profiled fiber.

Chemical fibers have many remarkable advantages like high strength, wear resistance, low density, good elasticity, etc. But there are also some shortages which cannot be ignored such as poor dyeability, high static electricity, poor light resistance and weak hygroscopicity.

With the development of .chemical fiber production, more and more scrapped chemical fibers and their textiles such as waste silks and worn-out chemical fiber textiles appear. Therefore, it is important to recycle these scrapped chemical fibers. In recent years, various chemical fiber textiles become more and more, and more leftovers are produced. In order to change these waste materials into things of value, departments of industry and commerce from place to place actively recycle numerous leftovers. Various waste silks can be used to spun yarn, weave cotton cloth and make ropes. Leftover materials can be made into different kinds of pretty commodities. Some leftovers can even be changed into resin glue, sizing agent and paint. However, the recycling of waste chemical fibers has still not been expanded widely and many techniques still need to be dealt with. Much more experiences should be obtained. Therefore, lots of scientific experiments should be made and new methods will be explored to further develop recycling.


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