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Various Materials of Chemical Industry

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Various Materials of Chemical Industry

Post  vaseline on Thu Jun 23, 2011 10:06 pm

Various kinds of materials play an important role in the development of chemical industry. It is said that among 9000 thousand kinds of chemical materials, more than 400 thousand ones can be used as chemical industry materials in developed countries. According to the chemical components, all these 9000 thousand kinds of chemical materials can be grouped into metal materials, inorganic nonmetallic materials and polymer materials. In addition, composite materials are regarded as the fourth group, or as a new kind of materials derived from former three ones. Generally speaking, except metal materials which are usually used for metallurgy industry, all the others can be used for the products of chemical industry.

Inorganic nonmetallic materials can be divided into two kinds, namely, traditional materials and new materials. The former one is mainly composed of metasilicate materials, while the components of the latter one are rather diverse. Metasilicate materials mainly include glasses, ceramics, and cements and so on. All these metasilicate materials are made of ores containing metasilicate and they can be used widely both as building materials and as handicraft articles materials. Although they have some shortages like fragileness, we can not ignore their advantages. For example, they have high rigidity and enough ability to resist heat and corrosion. Therefore, the development of them is getting stronger and stronger.

Special tapes of ceramics are taking a large part in new inorganic nonmetallic materials. These ceramics are mainly made of different kinds of oxidizing materials, silicon compounds, nitrides, fluorides, etc., and includes materials like high temperature ones, electrical insulations, piezoelectric ones and so on. Because of the special usages of these materials, special tapes of ceramics are not used everywhere. However, their values are quite high. The features of them are that the purity quotient of raw materials must be high; the processing must be precise, the components, microscopic structures, the surface and interface of the materials must be under strict control, etc.

Polymer materials mainly include plastics, chemical fibers and rubbers. They can be widely used in many fields like agriculture, industry and people’s daily life. Because of their wide usage, the development is rather quick. In 1930s, the output of polymer materials all over the world even did not reach 100 kilotons. While in 1980s, the output reached about 80 megatons and the output of plastics took 3/4. As the weight of plastics is lighter than that of metals, so their output is more than the output of black metals according to their respective volumes.

Composite materials are another kind of new structural materials. They are made of basic components of synthetic resins, metals or ceramics and some reinforcing materials like inorganic or organic synthetic fibers. As the varieties of basic materials and reinforcing materials are rather diverse, it is convenient to integrate basic materials with reinforcing materials to produce more kinds of composite materials to meet different demands. They have their unique characteristics. For example, their intensity and rigidity of volume ratio is much higher than that of metals. It is the birth of composite materials that creates wider prospects for chemical industry materials.


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